Aviation Acronyms and Mnemonics

Arranged by Certificate and Rating

Many of these memory items will apply to multiple areas of your flying, but are categorized by when they are generally first learned.

See the Full List Below



Documents for Airworthiness

91.9, 91.203 PD9waHAgJEFycm93PSJBUlJPVyI7IGVjaG8gJEFycm93OyAvL3RoaXMgaXMgdG8gdGVzdCB0aGUgcGhwIGNvZGUtLWl0IHNlZW1zIHRvIHdvcmshISA/Pg==

Airworthiness certificate
Registration (temporary is pink)
Radio license (international flights)
Operation handbook
Weight & balance

Inspections for Airworthiness

91.409, 91.207, 91.411, 91.413. 91.417

Annual (12 months)
VOR Check (30 Days)
100 Hour or Progressive inspection
(required if aircraft is used for hire or flight instruction for hire—91.409(b))

Altimeter (24months 91.411) and
Airworthiness Directives
Transponder (24 months 91.413)
ELT (12 months)
Static inspection (24 months)

Equipment for Airworthiness

Required for VFR flight 91.205(b)

Airspeed indicator
Tachometer (for each engine)
Temperature (each liquid cooled engine)
Oil pressure gauge (each engine using pressure system)
Oil temperature gauge (each air cooled engine)
Magnetic direction indicator (compass)
Manifold pressure gauge (for each altitude engine/turbo/supercharged)Safety belt
Signaling device and flotation gear (when for hire beyond power-off gliding distance of the shore)

(2 is for all the previous letters twice)

Fuel gauge (quantity for each tank)Landing gear position indicator (for retractable landing gear)
Emergency locator transmitter
Anti-collision light system
(any additional equipment required by the Pilots Operating Handbook)

Additionally required for VFR night 91.205(c)

FLAPS (additional equipment required for night flight)
Fuses (3 spare for each type)
Landing light (if for hire)
Anti-collision lights
Position lights
Source of electrical power (adequate for all installed electrical and radio equipment)

IFR Equipment Required

91.205 (d) Additionally required for IFR flight(in addition to those required by VFR night)

Radios (appropriate for flight)
Altimeter (sensitive/adjustable)
Clock (second hand sweep or digital)
Attitude indicator
Rate of turn
Directional gyro

Risk Elements

(Pilot in command, aircraft, environment, operation)

PAVE your way over the risks
External pressures

Decide Model

Elements of the DECIDE model for decision making

Detect a change needing attention
Estimate the need to counter or react to change
Choose the most desirable outcome for the flight
Identify actions to successfully control the change
Do something to adapt to the change
Evaluate the effect of the action countering the change

Visibility/Cloud Clearance Requirements

Visibility and Cloud Clearance RequirementsSpecial VFR requires

  1. ATC clearance
  2. Clear of Clouds
  3. 1sm visibility (at least)
  4. Daytime (sunrise to sunset)


Special Use Airspace

(United States)
PRWAMCN: Public Relations over a [crash] WAM CNn covers it
Warning areas
Alert areas
Military Operations Areas
Controlled Firing Areas
National Security Areas

LOST 5 C’s


VFR Cross Country

East is Least, West is Best

VFR Cruising Altitudes 91.159
Based upon Magnetic Course (MC=True Course subtract Variation)
0° to 179° = Odd thousand +500 feet
180° to 359° = Even thousand +500 feet

Also for computing groundspeed winds Winds from the left you subtract to heading Winds from the right you add to heading


Logging: FAR 1.1: civil twilight sunrise/sunset (generally when artificial illumination is required to read outside…on the ground)

Recency (to carry passengers at night) 61.57(b): 1 hour after sunset, 1 hour before sunrise (for both carrying passengers and accomplishing night recency requirements)

Position lights required: 91.209 Sunset to Sunrise

Hazardous Attitudes

Five hazardous attitudes and antidotes

I’M AIR (like I’m err or I’m erring)

Invulnerability–It could happen to me
Macho–Taking chances is foolish
Antiauthority–Follow the rules, they are usually right
Impulsivity–Think first—not so fast
Resignation–I can make a difference, I am not helpless

Multi-Engine Aerodynamics

Identifying the critical engine: (It is critical to remember the past)


Accelerated slipstream
Spiraling slipstream
Torque Vmc certification requirements 23.149

SMACFUM The conditions for how Vmc is determined for an aircraft.

Standard day at sea level
Max power
Aft CG
Critical engine windmilling
Flaps/gear downUp to 5° bank
Most unfavorable weight

Lost engine memorized checklist

Maintain directional control
Blue line or better (82KIAS DA42)
Max power on the operating engine
Flaps up
Gear up
Identify: dead foot dead engine
Verify: throttle position, instruments, proceed to feather/shut down


Fundamentals of Instruction

Characteristics of Learning
Purposeful—unique with individual’s past experience
Result of Experience—must experience to learn
Multifaceted—verbal, conceptual, emotional
Active Process—to learn: react and respond

Laws of Learning
Readiness—reason to learn–motivation
Exercise—most often repeated is best remembered
Effect—best with pleasant feeling
Primacy—teach right the first time
Intensity—vivid, dramatic, or exciting
Recency—most recent is best remembered

Levels of Learning
Understanding—perceiving and learning
Application—achieving skill to apply and perform
Correlation—associating learning to previously learned

Domains of Learning
Cognitive—recall information, understanding, analysis, application.
Affective—awareness, integration, emotion toward the experience
Psychomotor—observation, habit, physical skill, coordination of muscles

Memorize Endorsements

Types of flight instructor endorsements

Park Off Pigs

Pilot certificates
Aircraft rating
Recency of experience requirement
Knowledge test
Operating privilege
Flight instructor certificate
Flight review
Practical test
Instrument rating
Ground instructor certificate
Student pilot certificate

Private Pilot Endorsements


Illness – Is the pilot suffering from any illness or symptom of an illness which might affect them in flight,
Medication – Is the pilot currently taking any drugs (prescription or over-the-counter),
Stress – Psychological or emotional factors which might affect the pilot’s performance,
Alcohol – consider their alcohol consumption within the last 8 to 24 hours (.04 limit),
Fatigue – Has the pilot had sufficient sleep and rest in the recent past, and
Eating – Is the pilot sufficiently nourished?